The future already exists, you just have to look for it.
Thank you Hess for coming up with Hess’s law!
It saves a lot of time!
New from me at Wired, a graphene inspired photovoltaics breakthrough:
Two things hold back the mass adoption of solar energy as a source of sustainable energy. One is the need to store and transmit excess power, a problem people like Danielle Fong are working on solving by developing innovative new ways to store power. The other is the high cost of solar panels. One of the reasons solar panels are so expensive is that it’s tricky to extract electric currents from semiconductors, the materials used to convert solar radiation into electrical energy.
Up til now, this could only be done with a few materials — usually silicon. But a new breakthrough will enable manufacturers to make efficient photovoltaics using almost any semiconductor, including cheap and abundant materials like metal oxides, sulfides, and phosphides.
A typical photovoltaic cell is built with silicon and treated with chemicals. This treatment is called “doping,” and it creates the driving force needed to extract power from the cell. Photovoltaics can also be built with cheaper materials but many of these can’t be doped chemically. But a method developed by Professor Alex Zettl’s research group at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and University of California at Berkeley makes it possible to dope nearly any semiconductor by applying an electric field instead of chemicals. The method is described in a paper published in the journal Nano Letters.
Photo courtesy of Paul Takizawa, the Zettl Research Group, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and University of California at Berkeley.
Would you guys mind if I posted bits & pieces of information that I learned from the books I’m reading?
I read the cloning book before, which focused mostly on frogs, and I posted quite a bit about that. Now I’m reading a book about Nikola Tesla, essays & etc.
I think it would be cool to do, so I hope you guys don’t mind, and enjoy it.
The book I’m reading is ” The Tesla Papers “.
Picture: Colloidal quantum dots irradiated with a UV light. Different sized quantum dots emit different color light due to quantum confinement.
Quantum dots are constructed of a few hundred atoms, yet have all the quantum properties of a single atom. Some have been designed to reveal the workings of the nervous system, and others to be the detectors of breast cancer.
They’re zero dimensional, so they have less density than higher-dimensional structures. As a result, they have superior transport and optical properties, and are being researched for use in diode lasers, amplifiers, and biological sensors.
Researchers have tested them in transistors, solar cells, LEDs, and diode lasers. They have investigated them as agents for medical imaging and hope to use them as qubits ( qubit- In a classical system, a bit would have to be in one state or the other, but quantum mechanics allows the qubit to be in a superposition of both states at the same time).
In fluorescent dye applications, higher frequencies of light emitted after excitation of the dot as the crystal size grows smaller results in a color shift from red to blue in the light emitted.
An immediate optical feature of colloidal quantum dots is their coloration. Quantum dots of the same material, but with different sizes, can emit light of different colors. This is the quantum confinement effect. The larger the dot, the redder (lower energy); Conversely, smaller dots emit bluer (higher energy) light.Quantitatively speaking, the energy (and hence color) of the fluorescent light is inversely proportional to the size of the quantum dot
Quantum dots of different sizes can be assembled into a gradient multi-layer nanofilm —- Properties of such nanostructures are finding its applications in design of solar cells and energy storage devices.
In an unconfined semiconductor, an electron-hole pair is given a characteristic length, called the exciton Bohr radius. This is estimated by replacing the positively charged atomic core with the hole in the Bohr formula. If the electron and hole are constrained further, then properties of the semiconductor change. For example, the absorption and emission wavelength of light shifts towards smaller wavelengths. This effect is a form of quantum confinement, and it is a key feature in many emerging electronic structures.
Lee et al. (2002) reported using genetically engineered M13 bacteriophage viruses to create quantum dot biocomposite structures. It is known that liquid crystalline structures of wild-type viruses (Fd, M13, and TMV) are adjustable by controlling the solution concentrations, solution ionic strength, and the external magnetic field applied to the solutions.
At the Cern particle laboratory, physicists have managed to hold on to antimatter for up to 16 minutes to observe its behaviour